The restart of the moon landing has been repeatedly frustrated. Has the U.S. moon landing technology been lost?
Among them, in addition to the failure of the Apollo 13 mission, the United States has a total of 6 manned missions to the moon and sent 12 astronauts to the moon.
In the following decades, no one landed on the moon again. Until the beginning of this century, various countries successively launched lunar landing plans, and the United States had to restart the lunar landing plan.
However, the US moon landing plan seems to have been “rotten”. In 2004, the then US President Bush formulated three goals,One of them is to return to the moon by 2020 at the latest and establish a lunar base。
Clearly, Bush did not deliver on his promises, and even now that the U.S. really does restart the Moon landing program — the Artemis program — it’s going to be difficult.
The Artemis 1 mission, originally scheduled to launch at 8:33 a.m. Eastern Time on August 29 (20:33 Beijing time on August 29), also failed because it could not solve the failure of one of the four engines of the SLS rocket. Cancel.
Pictured: Artemis 1 mission delayed
In fact, the Artemis 1 mission is not directly sending people to the moon, but a 42-day mission to orbit the moon and return, and its Orion spacecraft only sits three mannequins and a plush Snoop more than a toy.
Seeing this, many people may be curious. The United States has successfully landed on the moon more than 50 years ago. Why is it so difficult to land on the moon again now, and start from the “basic mission” of flying around the moon?
Is the moon landing real?
Many people may have doubted the authenticity of the US moon landing, after all, even the images in that era were blurred.
Of course, skeptics can put forward countless possible evidences, but the moon landing must be real anyway, because in addition to leaving many photos, images, and audio recordings of the Apollo moon landing program, there are nearly 382 kilograms of lunar rock samples. .
Image: Sealed Moon Rocks
A large part of these lunar rocks are stored in the laboratory, while another part is distributed to research institutes around the world, including our China also got 1 gram.
The 1-gram moon rock in China was donated by the United States in 1978. Our researchers also divided the 1-gram moon rock into two equal parts, one part is used for research, and the other part is preserved in the Beijing Planetarium.
Ouyang Ziyuan, the later “father of Chang’e”, was in charge of the research on the 0.5-gram moon rock. He once said that 14 related articles were published just by studying the 0.5-gram moon rock.
It can be seen that there is no objection that these rocks come from the moon, and of course the lunar rock samples obtained by other countries are the same – no one has raised objections.
In addition to these lunar rock samples, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiters launched by different space agencies can also clearly photograph the landing sites of the previous six Apollo missions to the moon. The photos of these locations can clearly see the abandoned previous missions. The descent module and rover are believed to be able to discern even the footprints of astronauts.
And one of the most important pieces of evidence is that the Apollo missions installed some simple instruments – the Lunar Laser Ranging Mirror Array, these instruments can be used to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon, and they are still in operation today, if no one has landed on the Moon. Can’t do that at all.
Since the United States did land on the moon 50 years ago, why does the restart of the moon landing have to start with orbiting the moon?
In fact, the reason is very simple. It is not that the previous technologies are lost, but that those technologies are outdated.
If a safer, more sustainable, and more cost-effective moon landing is to be expected, then everything including launch systems, rockets, and spacecraft will have to start all over again.
Figure: Orion spacecraft
Why did this moon landing start with the basics?
According to NASA, the Artemis plan will use three missions to achieve another manned moon landing.
Among them, Mission 1, which was cancelled yesterday, was an uncrewed flight around the moon, mainly to test the heat shield of the new spacecraft, the Orion spacecraft, because this time they will land on the moon with unprecedented speed.
The biggest difference between the Orion spacecraft and the previous Apollo mission spacecraft is that it can accommodate four astronauts instead of three. It is believed that two people will land on the moon and two will stay in lunar orbit to command.
Figure: The Orion spacecraft can carry 4 people
Mission 2 will use the same rockets and spacecraft as Mission 1, but Mission 2 will send astronauts into lunar orbit with the purpose of testing key systems on the Orion spacecraft.
The No. 3 mission will actually land people on the moon. If all goes well, the United States will complete this mission in 2025 – manned return to the moon, which will be the first time humans have landed on the moon since Apollo 17 returned to Earth.
It is not difficult to find that compared with the previous Apollo missions, the number of manned missions to the moon by the United States is much lower. It can only be said that the previous experience of landing on the moon is very important, so that they can reduce many tests, and as long as the rocket and spacecraft are no problem, it will basically be over.
However, in addition to the spacecraft and rockets, the spacesuit for this mission also needs to be re-developed, which is also critical and may even affect future U.S. moon landing missions.
You may be wondering if 12 people landed on the moon before, did those space suits not work well?
The answer is not only that it doesn’t work, but it doesn’t work at all. Because these space suits are either already on display in museums, or they are too dilapidated to be repaired, far from meeting the requirements for landing on the moon.
It was previously reported that NASA outsourced the development of spacesuits for this lunar mission, as well as for longer-term space missions, to two companies for $3.5 billion.
The Artemis 2 mission is planned to be carried out in 2024, two years after the first mission. One of the key factors is the development progress of the space suit.
It needs to be mentioned here again that the Artemis plan is far from simply using three missions to return humans to the moon again. NASA’s original plan was to establish a “gateway in lunar orbit before the second mission in 2024” “The space station, and the third real manned landing on the moon, the astronauts will first transfer to this space station, and then land.
In addition, the end of the mission is far from manned landing on the moon, but the establishment of a lunar base to prepare for the subsequent Mars mission.
However, the space station in lunar orbit is also a brand-new technology, and its research and development is far behind expectations, so it can only be abandoned for the time being, and the manned moon landing will be planned first.
It is not difficult to find that the US plan to land on the moon this time has the meaning of catching fire and rushing ducks to the shelves. After all, there are a bunch of countries behind now planning to land manned people on the moon. If they can’t land on the moon again as soon as possible, they will lose face.
It is precisely because of the urgency that the Artemis 1 mission was cancelled due to a malfunction before it even started, so there are not too many surprises.
The window for Artemis 1’s next launch is September 2, and it’s not known if they’ll be successful next time.
Responsible editor: Luomu
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